Urtica dioica, often called common nettle, stinging nettle or nettle leaf, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae. It is native to Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and North America, and introduced elsewhere.
Urtica dioica is a dioecious, herbaceous, perennial plant, 1 to 2 m tall in the summer and dying down to the ground in winter.
In Europe, nettles have a strong association with human habitation and buildings. The presence of nettles may indicate the site of a long-abandoned building. Human and animal waste may be responsible for elevated levels of phosphate and nitrogen in the soil, providing an ideal environment for nettles.
The plant has a long history of use as a source for traditional medicine, food, and tea.