Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (ZJ) belonging to the family Rhamnaceae is a small tree, or less commonly, a shrub; the fruits of ZJ are notably used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (ZJ) is a deciduous tree native to China that grows approximately 10 metres high. It has brown or grey-brown bark, and its branchlets can have 2 stipular spines; the spines are long, erect, and stout, whereas the short spines are recurved.
The leaves are alternate, entire, with three prominent basal veins, and 2-7 cm long; some species are deciduous, others evergreen. The flowers are small, inconspicuous yellow green. The fruit is an edible drupe, yellow-brown, red, or black, globose, or oblong, 1-5 cm long, often very sweet and sugary. It is utilized as a food and traditional medicine in China.
The Official Pharmacopoeia of China reported ZJ is traditionally used to treat and nourish the stomach, tonify the spleen, and nourish the blood, as well as for overall enriching and tonifying and to improve one’s health.